sapere aude:

Reclaiming the common sense foundations of knowledge

The site seeks to further the debate about the foundations of knowledge by facilitating access to the arguments of critics of orthodoxy. Because of the perennially central role the natural sciences, critical arguments focus on the presuppositions, concepts and methods of modern physics, and especially on the cognitive revolution associated with special relativity ("anti-relativity").

Last revised: 22 October 2002

| Contents | Continue to: | page 2 | page 3: links for critics | Jews against Zionism |

Contents: sapere aude

Introduction to sapere aude and reading list

Part 1: Aids to communication

1.1. Associations, institutes etc.
1.2. A small selection of books by critics (foundations only)
1.3. Critics A-Z

Part 2:
2.1. Tower of Babel: On the nature of relativistic effects
2.2. References and reading list

Contents, page two and three:

page two: The loss of meaning
1. Introduction
2. Classical expositions of the relativistic effect
2.1. Voigt
2.2. Poincaré
2.3. Einstein's "Simple Derivation"
2.4. P.G. Bergmann
3. The triumph of mathematical unreason : Cantor's diagonal procedure

page three: Links: foundations, authoritarianism, critics of special relativity
1. Directories
2. Challenging the foundations:
2.1. The geometry of movement
2.2. Two worlds: Ideas vs things
2.3. Policing the desire to understand
2.4. Objections to SR that ignore the mathematical background

Jews against Zionism:
Links to Jewish sites (directories, organizations, individuals) critical of Zionism, the state ideology of Israel

Introduction to sapere aude and reading list

What is sapere aude and why have I chosen the title? The term had been adopted by Kant:

Enlightenment is Man's emergence from self-imposed tutelage, that is to say, from the inability to use the intellect without guidance by another. It is self-imposed if its cause does not lie in a deficiency of the intellect but of the courage and determination to use it autonomously. Sapere aude! Have the courage to think! is therefore the motto of the Enlightenment. (I. Kant, Was ist Aufklärung?)
The motto had encouraged young post-war Germans confronted with the profound intellectual and moral failure that had been responsible for the rise of Nazism to power. The motto harks back to the classical emphasis on critical reflection. It is therefore apt in the present context because it places the task of radical re-thinking in a historical context, namely the perennial evolution of understanding and self-knowledge.

The inquiry into foundations is vulnerable to the fragmentation of knowledge; asking the expert is there never an option. Unfortunately, despite the conjunction of physics, mathematics and epistemology in the classical 'philosophy' tripos as a core subject for all students (of all subjects), there is the temptation to neglect topics not obviously connected with one's chosen speciality. Furthermore, the misguided modern esteem for fast-track study is based on a misconception concerning the nature of cognitive growth; it atrophies cognitive capacity because it underestimates the time needed for reflective and wide reading across related disciplines and including different schools. Fragmented knowledge defeats its purpose:

The complaints of critics about the intrusion of unintelligible mathematical procedures are particularly important; difficulties generally can be seen to be of mathematical origin. Mathematics (the quantitative analysis of patterns) plays a central role because we study causes by means of their quantifiable effects (i.e. patterns generated by the geometric action of 'natural forces'). Unfortunately, developments in mathematics have been too rapid and left unattended by epistemological scrutiny; M. Kline observes that even professionals are too frightened to leave their expert niches (he does not observe that the infatuation with novelty does not help users of conventional methods). Apparently queer results deserve the urgent attention of epistemologists. This applies particularly to alternative measurement specifications by way of invariant transforms - by their very nature not amenable to experimental verification - e.g. the so-called space-time analysis of SR which cannot be understood in separation from the quantitative treatment. Not only are such results symptoms of cognitive failure at an alarmingly elementary level (concepts of elementary geometry; an absurd confusion of different algebras); but radically 'new' treatments have become the springboard for developments more pernicious because ever more complicated.

There is the danger of seeking relief in alternatives (ontological or utilitarian) and short-term fixes; but the very nature of the difficulties can leave no doubt that a radical inquiry into the foundations of knowledge is needed. In this enterprise, critics might profit from the defence of common sense against skeptics and transcendalists by Aristotle (see the entry in the introductory reading list). Cognitive studies today show the fiendish complexity of apparently simple questions; the philosophical scorn poured on Aristotle (and Locke) is therefore misplaced. To quote from P. H. Wicksteed's General Introduction to the Loeb edition of the Physics:

If he was on the wrong side it does not follow that he was not on the right path. Much of his physics is of vital significance in relation to that borderland between physical and metaphysical thought where mathematics and philosophy meet.
Let's briefly remind ourselves of the unitary tradition as summarized by Aristotle; the sophistication of this tradition is strikingly evident on comparison with the elite of later thinkers (for instance the crude and naively overconfident theory of knowledge of a Descartes). The common sense inquiry into 'the scheme of things' seeks to unravel the ultimate (physical) causes of the potential for change and action. Life, including the cultural potential of advanced social animals such as homo sapiens, would be expected to evolve by so-called natural law from the constituents of physical existence.

Aristotle's inquiry into the concepts of geometry and physics is particularly important, in view of perennial blunders (the 'time flow' of Barrow and Newton, not to mention contemporary notions; the 'physical properties of space' of Gauss, Riemann, Helmholtz; the mathematically useless appeal to the 'space of perception' among critics today) or difficulties (moving spaces). Needless to say, because of the nature of foundational inquiries, some of Aristotle's questions are hopelessly outdated, while some of his most puzzling difficulties (levels of truth and abstraction) have been overcome by later developments (e.g. Grassmann's extension of the classical notion of analogy to the space concept). These changes do not devalue the encouragement given by his relentless struggle against seemingly hopeless conceptual confusions.

From ancient habits, the longing for truth is an occasion for wishful thinking, for flights of fancy: 'alternative' theories regardless of the lack of foundations. Efforts critical of foundations are nowhere listed, and are rejected as 'negative'. To quote the philosopher Bernard Williams:

If we accept that there can be knowledge at the hypertraditional or unreflective level; if we accept the obvious truth that reflection characteristically disturbs, unseats, or replaces those traditional concepts; and if we agree that, at least as things are, the reflective level is not in a position to give us knowledge we did not have before - then we reach the notably un-Socratic conclusion that ... reflection can destroy knowledge. (p.148)

How truthfulness ... is to be combined with reflection ... is a question that philosophy ... cannot answer. The answer has to be discovered, or established, as the result of a process ... which essentially cannot formulate the answer in advance, except in an unspecific way. ... This is why it is a misunderstanding to ask ... "what alternative" one has to [given theoretical] formulations. ... To suppose that, if [current] formulations are rejected, we are left with nothing is to take a strange view of what ... counts as something. (pp.200-201)

Or nearer to home, a quotation from Mario Bunge's awesome (if mathematically misguided) Foundations of Physics, p.7:
...a third chief obstacle to the growth of [foundation research is ...] the dislike of criticism for seeming to be sterile and even unkind. It is sometimes argued that scientific research is a cooperative enterprise - true - and that new facts, which alone matter - false - are not discovered by criticism but by hard, constructive and cooperative work - a work consisting in attentively staring at things and busily manipulating them.
Present difficulties reveal a lack of elementary cognitive competence, not least an inability to use mathematical symbols as a new kind of language for quantitative truths that are self-evident; as in the evolution of 'ordinary' written language, users tend to resort to kabbalistic techniques (grotesquely inapplicable algebras 'interpreted' and 'explained' to the student). Understanding and insight are expressions of life: ever in evolution. In that sense,

sapere aude!

Introductory reading list:

(I presuppose familiarity with classical as well as modern texts which should not be dismissed as 'books': history and philosophy of the foundations of physics and mathematics. The philosophy of science has rightly been dismissed as the publicity department of establishment physics; its omission in my lists is deliberate. I include - here and in Pt.2.2.2. - only a few texts that help to follow the course of pernicious developments. Because of the neglect of visual logic, changes in the usage and terminology of 'algebra' are particularly important.)
Aristotle. There is a growing awareness of his unequalled status as a pioneer of the empirist tradition; but he needs to be approached with caution for two reasons:
1. Some of his cogitations are necessarily largely alien because of the cultural conditioning of cognition, especially in the case of a culture so remote in time.
2. Texts need to be read with reference to the Greek original; translations from the typically anti-empiricist philosophical perspective falsify key terms and perceived problems, while expert commentaries, though essential, are nothing less than preposterous.
Crucial passages turn up in unexpected places; with the preceding proviso one should therefore read as widely as possible in conjunction with Crowe/Grassmann, Heath, Kline, histories such as Copleston's and texts such as Taylor's. Those unfortunate not to have 'discovered' thinkers like Aristotle (and Euclid) at least in their early teens will find Heath's trenchantly annotated collection of passages helpful.

Arnheim, R., Visual Thinking. London: Faber, 1970. (On the impoverishment of the imagination by the mathematics of number.)

Bunge, M., Foundations of Physics. Berlin etc.: Springer, 1967.
(Orthodoxy at its most erudite, sophisticated and critical; compulsory text in foundations for patient reflection. But a tragedy of the first order: epistemology guided by the philosophy of mathematics - despite its ridicule by professional mathematicians - which arrogantly dismisses visual logic as non-existent and therefore fails to distinguish between symbolic/mathematical logic and the mathematics of number and extension. An entire level of reference has thus gone missing, namely the abstract visual patterns denoted by the mathematical symbols of analysis in physics. Operationalism is therefore inevitable, namely the fatal assumption that the referents of mathematical symbols are physical objects or phenomena, real or hypothetical. The result is a serious misconception of the nature, purpose, methods and objects of inquiry in physics.)

Copleston, F., A History of Philosophy, especially Vols. IV to VI. New York: Image Books, 1964. Highly recommended.

Crowe, M.J., A History of Vector Analysis. Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1967. (Indispensable for critics because of detailed attention to Grassmann's clarification of concepts such as 'axiom'. To be read in the historical context - e.g. Copleston on Kant, and in complementation of ostensibly richer but anti-physics histories such as Kline, v.d.Waerden or Torretti.)

Ferguson, E.S., Engineering and the Mind's Eye. Cambr.: MIT Press, 1982. (On the debilitation of essential engineering skills by counter-intuitive mathematics.)

Gazzaniga, M. S. (ed.), The New Cognitive Neurosciences. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2000. (Listed here only as one of many representative texts in a vast and rapidly growing literature. Core subject for epistemology, natural philosophy and criticism of the foundations of physics.)

Heath, T.L. (ed.), Euclid: The thirteen books of the Elements, 3 vols. Dover reprint, 1956.

Heath, T.L., A History of Greek Mathematics, 2 vols. Dover reprint, 1981.

Heath, T.L., Mathematics in Aristotle. Oxford: Clarendon 1949. Compulsory reading.

James, W., Principles of Psychology. New York: H. Holt, 1890. Dover reprint 1950.
(See his strictures on "philosophical absolutism" throughout the detailed discussions of all relevant topics, in a massive investigation which is receiving renewed attention.)

Kellman, P.J., and Arterberry, M.E., The Cradle of Knowledge: Development of Perception in Infancy. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1998. (Comprehensive bibliography on all aspects of perception: psychology, epistemology, mathematics.)

Kline, M., Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times. OUP: 1972. (Compulsory reference for all critics.)

Maziarz, E.A., The Philosophy of Mathematics, New York: Philosophical Library, 1950. (Highly recommended; comprehensive bibliography.)

Merz, J.Th., A History of European Thought in the Nineteenth Century. 4 vols. Edinburgh/London: 1907 ff.

Passmore, J., A Hundred Years of Philosophy. Penguin, 1968. (Cf. pp.36ff. on the implications of the existence of natural forces.)

Sheen, F.J., Philosophy of Science. Milwaukee: The Bruce Publ. Co., 1934. (Brilliant discussion of the catastrophic consequences of Kant's anti-empiricist theory of knowledge. Drawback: metaphysics founded on preconceived notions of Being. Unchanging formal principles need not exclude that reality is a coming into existence, a kind of growth.)

Smith, V. E., The Philosophical Frontiers of Physics. Washington: The Catholic University of America Press, 1947. (Good on classical empiricism, but blind to the role of force and its geometric action.)

Taylor, A. E., Aristotle. New York: Dover, 1956 (London: Th. Nelson & Sons, 1943).

Thiele, Ch., Philosophie und Mathematik (in German). Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1995.
(Comprehensive survey & bibliography, from an unquestioned dualistic perspective, of trends in the foundations of mathematics, including concepts of space. Typically, Grassmann is not even mentioned. Note the queer outcome of the dualist theory of knowledge where mere abstractions such as mathematical spaces present as mystically co-existing real universes.)

Walker, S., Animal Thought. London: Routledge, 1983. (On the inadequacy of philosophical notions of concept and abstraction.)

Williams, B., Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy. London & Glasgow: Fontana Press/Collins, 1985.

Part 1: Aids to communication

1.1. Associations, directories, institutes etc. (A-Z):

Directory of dissident physicists and their beliefs, ed. Dr. J.P. Wesley, Weiherdammstr. 24, 78176 Blumberg, Germany;

The Global Dissident Physics Association ('ethical discourse in natural philosophy'), Australia.
(Evidence of high-level criticism. Unfortunately, the "no formalisms" stance is a counsel of despair. Physics is quantitative; what is needed is mathematical competence.)

Natural Philosophy Alliance, founded 1994.
(In the absence of any organized alternative, despite the ever present danger of rhetoric, this could have been an inestimable aid to information and support. Unfortunately wide open to exploitation of the legitimate concern with the crisis in professional physics by camps that can only gain from mudding the waters - theoreticians, mathematicians - and by the lucrative and rampant 'dissident' market - publishing, alternative theory, amateur philosophy and ontology, popular 'physics without maths'. At best inattentive to the epistemological foundations of quantification - cf. Bunge; prey to operationalist mathematics at its most farcical, and a Trojan horse for cohorts of algebra 'experts' waiting in the wings.)

Research Group "Geometry and Physics" (Director: Prof. Umberto Bartocci), Department of Mathematics, University of Perugia, Via Vanvitelli 1, 06100 Perugia, Italy;
Comment: Prof. Bartocci's Institute is here listed to indicate the participation of mathematical experts in the anti-relativity movement. But typically, like other mathematicians listed below (e.g. Pagels), he would have us believe that "from a mathematical (and therefore theoretical) sense, special relativity is completely consistent and correct"; see
Unfortunately, harping on the difference between mathematics and physics - Prof. Marmet's response in .../quest.htm, for instance - obscures that the long-standing obsession with abstract formalisms has led to the failure to distinguish between two different mathematical problems. The LT, a valid solution of a problem in 4D group algebra, is not the correct solution of an entirely different mathematical (N.B.: not physical) problem: namely the invariant transform for displacement vectors (3D because t is here not an independent variable). That is why there are problems of verification and complaints about 'contradictions'. For brief remarks see Pt.2.1. below and page 2.

1.2. A small selection of books by critics:

It is to be emphasized that, without attention to the (elementary!) mathematical foundation of real or supposed 'problems', critical arguments (ether, space, time, relative vs. absolute, simultaneity etc.) and experimental approaches (clock retardation, superluminarity) are not only misconceived but counterproductive. (For instance, Dingle and O'Rahilli typically regurgitate the 'algebra' inapplicable in an argument about displacements, and proceed to verbose laments on the predictably queer outcome. Rudakov, from his declared blind trust in 'mathematical rules', never notices the discrepancy of a verbal passage thought crucial - whether K' or K" is 'moving' - with the mathematical treatment.) However, in view of the belief that Einstein is admirable precisely because he is unintelligible, my lists are tolerant because the honest labours of critics are to be applauded.

For lack of space I list here only a small number of books that challenge the foundations of physics:

In the A-Z list of critics of foundations I refer to the following comprehensive lists of typical titles (books, articles, conference papers):

1.3. Critics A-Z

As remarked in the introduction to Dr. Wesley's 1997 Directory of Dissident Physicists, there is little agreement.Because of the non-technical nature of the underlying problem it would be an error to confine the list to established academics. Those inclined to turn up their noses at the dubious company might bear in mind that the first scientific revolution could not have succeeded without the help of 'a mean sort of men' between 'the rascal multitude and the learned sages' (Ch. Hill, Ch.2). In view of the immensity of the tragedy, and in a culture which mercilessly abuses education for authoritarian purposes, it is a mark of honour to have protested. (Günther Baer's list of conscientious objectors to establishment teaching and tactics, likewise, emphasizes the honour of standing up to be counted: 'We are not alone', The overlap with my list is small: Herr Friebe, Dr. Galeczki, Dr. Lumpe.)
My list honours many NPA-members; this had been indicated by an NPA-tag. The veto on any allusion to NPA-membership, although unhelpful, does not warrant a revision of such entries.

Achterberg, Abraham
(superluminal; cf. Twain FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Adey, A.I.A., Technical University, 5604 EE Eindhoven, The Netherlands

Agathangelidis, Antonis, Chris. Smirnis 22, Nea Menemeni, Thessaloniki 561 22, Greece

Ahn, Byoung Ha, 2420 Whitney Ave. E5, Hamden, CT 06518, USA;

Ahonen, Erkki Paavali (*1932), (University of Turku), Finland

Alford, Jeff (Sandy)

Allen, Dr. Dennis P., Jr., mathematician, P.O.Box 41, Spring Lake, MI 49456, USA

Alliatta, Guilio
(ca. 1923 cf. Moch)

Antonopoulos, Constantin, Interdisciplinary Department, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, Athens 157 73, Greece

Anteski, Dr. Michael, Santa Fe, NM 87505-9078, USA

Apgar, Dr. Edward, Science Center, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
(NPA97b, 00)

Apostol, Marian (pro-Einstein), Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Atomic Physics, Magurele-Bucharest MG-6, Romania

Arp, Dr., Halton, Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, 85740 München (Garching), Germany

Aspden, Dr. Harold, formerly Prof. of Electrical Engineering, University of Southampton, Chilworth, Southampton, SO16 7HZ England

Assis, Dr. Andre K.T., Instituto de Fisica - DRCC, Universidade Estad de Campinas, Brazil
(NPA00) (+AAAD)

Åstrand, Ingvar, Forssavägen 4, 152 52, Södertälje, Sweden;

Atkin, Adam, P.O. Box 950, Briarcliff, NY 10510, USA

Avetissian, A.K. & H.K.
(superluminal; cf. Twain FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Babin, Walter, Canada

Baer, Günther, Germany
(1993 cf. Moch)

Baig, Mirza Abdullah
(cf. Twain97)

Baird, Eric, U.K.

Ball, Lewis, RCfTA, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
(superluminal; cf. Twain FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Balster, Dr. Wilhelm
(1921f. cf. Moch)

Barrows, Michael, Pacifica, CA 94044, USA;

Barth, Gotthard, ed. (1954 - 1989) Wissen im Werden, A-2063 Zwingendorf, Austria
(1984& Moch)

Barthel, Dr. P.D., Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, 9700 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
(superluminal; cf. Twain95)

Bartocci, Prof. Umberto, Director of the Research Group "Geometry and Physics", Department of Mathematics, University of Perugia, Italy

Beal, Alasdair (ed. SIS journal), Leeds, West Yorkshire, U.K

Beaty, William J. (Bill), Seattle, WA 98117, USA

Beckerle, John, 38 Two Ponds Road, Falmouth, MA 02540, USA

+Beckmann, Petr, Founder-Editor, Galilean Electrodynamics (1990), Prof. Em. of Electrical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA

Begg, Eric, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA

Bergman, David L., Common Sense Science, Kennesaw, GA 30144-8013, USA

Bertram, Dr. Sidney, 55 Broad St., San Luis Obispo, CA 93406, USA;
(NPA97c, 00, o2)

Birch, Paul (*1956), Cowes, IOW, PO31 8BN, England
(superluminal, space theorist; cf. Twain95, 97)

Birks, D. and S.

Bjerknes, Christopher Jon

Bludman, Sidney A.
(superluminal; cf. Twain95 and FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Bockris, Dr. John O'M., Prof. Em. of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77845, USA; or

Bolger, Stephen R., New York, NY 10024, USA

Bolstein, Arthur, 040 11 Kosice, Slovakia

Bonilla, Hector Luis, Philadelphia, PA 19133, USA
(NPA96, 97b)

Borchardt, Glenn, Director, Progressive Science Institute, Berkeley, CA 94705-0335, USA

Borneas, Prof Dr. Marius, University of Timisoara, Romania
(deterministic quantum theory; SR valid as well as invalid; +AAAD)

Bosonac, S.
(superluminal; cf. Twain95)

Boughton, James, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA;

Bourbaki, Dr. George (Dr. Georg A. Bruenig), DEng, Patent Attorney, 80798 München, Germany
(1990 cf. Moch)

Branderberger, Doz. Dr. Ing. Heinrich, Germany
(1962 cf. Moch)

Brenner, Myron D., M.D., Pikesville, MD 21208, USA

Brill, Dr. Michael H., Sarnoff Corp., Princeton, NJ 08540, USA

Brinkman, Karl
(1988 cf. Moch)

+Broda, Andrzej, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Brösske, Ludwig
(1931 cf. Moch)

Brown, Dr. G. Burniston, Padstow, Cornwall, PL28 8JS, U.K.
(1967 cf. Moch) [main link dead: search for new url in progress]

Brown, L.F.
(superluminal; cf. Twain95 and FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Bruno, Thomas
(1933 cf. Moch)

Brute, Adam R., St. Just, nr. Pensance, Cornwall TR19 7HZ, U.K.

Buonomano, Prof. Vincent, Instituto de Matematica, Universade de Campinas, Brazil
(critical position unknown; listed in Dr. Wesley's Directory)

Cahall, James S. "Scott", Ukiah, CA 95482, USA

Campbell, John O., North Hills, CA 91343-6310, USA
(Ap98; GE)

Cannata, Giuseppe (*1923), Prof. di Fisica ed Elettrotecnica, Ist. Tecn. Nautici di Trieste e di Palermo, Italy

Capuozzo, Attilio and Marcello, 80038 Pomigliano d'Arco (Na), Italy; urls as for Palmieri

Carpenter, Dr. Donald G., Florissant, CO 80816-9315, USA;

Carrell, Mike, Cinnaminson, NJ 08077, USA;

+Carroll, Dr. Robert L., Director, R. L. Carroll Institute, Fairmont, VI, USA
(GE; superluminal)

Carter, James, Absolute Motion Institute, Enumclaw, WA 98022, USA
(NPA96, 97a,b, 98b, 99, 00, 01)

Castellano, Doc, Simi Valley, CA 93063, USA;

Cattaneo, Luciano; urls as for Palmieri

Ceapa, A.C.V., R-70700 Bucharest, Romania;
(NPA00, 01)

Chang, Tsao, formerly professor of physics,University of Alabama, Huntsville, USA

Chelvam, Reginald T., USA
(1982 cf. Moch)

Chernyakov, Sergei, Murmansk 183038, Russia; and
(cf. Twain95)

Cherrington, William J., San Francisco, CA 94121, USA;

Chiao, Prof. Raymond Y., Superluminal Physics Research Group, Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Cal. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA
Comment: Prof. Chiao's group, like that of Prof. Nimtz in Cologne, Germany, is widely believed to have refuted the TR assumption of c as a limiting speed and universal constant. This belief, like the establishment interpretation of TR, ignores that c, both as a limiting speed and a constant, presupposes a relativistic metric. The experiments in question involve successions of Riemann spaces the metric of which, even in an ideal case, is completely unknown. These efforts demonstrate the catastrophic failure in our understanding of the meaning of quantitative procedures of which the alternative measurement specifications of TR are only a particularly risible example.

Chu, Prof. Steven, Chair, Physics Dept., Stanford, CA 94305-4060, USA
(superluminal; cf. Twain95)

Claybourne, J. P., 2919 Bronco Lane, Orlando, FL 32822, USA

+Coe, Lee (NPA; staunch SR-opponent since 1932), USA

Cohen, H.H.
(superluminal; cf. Twain95 and FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Collier, Richard M., Clarksville, TN 37040, USA

Collins, Dr. Glen C., P.E., Ste.42-B, Marietta, GA 30067-5309, USA

"Conejo Rojo", Putney, NSW 2112, Australia

Coon, W. Vincent,, Salt Lake City, UT 84106, USA

Corbin, Jerry, Phoenix, AZ 85044, USA;

Cornille, Dr. Patrick, C.E.A. Centre de BIII, 91680 Bruyeres le Chatel, France

Creasey, Floyd, Richardson, Tx, USA

Crespin, Daniel, Venezuela

Croca, Prof. Doutor Jose Ramalho, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal;
(Ap97,99) (quantum physicist; SR valid as well as invalid)

Crotti, Marcelo A.

Cullwick, E.G. (defender of 3D physics), formerly Prof. of Engineering, St. Andrews, U.K.

Cunningham, R. Bruce, Murphys, CA 95247, USA

Cuny, Joseph F., Gardena, CA 90247, USA

Curé, Dr. Jorge C., Delray Beach, FL 33483, USA
(GE; cf. Twain94)

Dahl, Friedrich
(1922 cf. Moch)

Davidson, Dan A., RIVAS, Sierra Vista, AZ 85636, USA

DeBiase, Ray

Deen, Glen, Plano, TX 75025, USA;
(NPA98b, 99, 00, 01)

de Halleux, Dr. Benoit, Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium

Dehnen, Prof. H., University of Konstanz, Germany
(1980 cf. Moch)

Denisov, Prof. Anatoliy A., St. Petersburg Polytechnical Institute, Russia

Dering, J. P., c/o ESJ Network, Leicester NC 28748, USA
(cf. Twain96)

Derksen, Dipl.Ing., Norbert, D-78464 Konstanz, Germany;

+Deutsch, Dr. Daniel H., Pasadena, CA, USA
(GE; NPA97c)

De Witte, Roland (*1953), B-6792 Halanzy, Belgium

Di Mizio, Ivano; urls as for Palmieri

+Dingle, Herbert, Prof. of Natural Philosophy, Imperial College, London, U.K.

Dingler, Hugo
(1921 cf. Moch)

Dinowitz, Stephen, Massapequa Park, NY 11762, USA

Dishington, Roland H., Pacific Palisades, CA 90272, USA;

Dissler, Walter, Dipl. Ing., Sonnewalde, Austria

Dixon, Laurence J., Prof. Em., University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, U.K.

Dmitriyev, Valery P., Moscow 117574, Russia
(Ap00; GE; cf. Twain95); alternative url:

Doan, John, Footscray, Vic. 3011, Australia

Donnelly, Dr. Rod (Adj. Prof. Eng. & Applied Science), Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
(superluminal; cf. Twain FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Doran, Fred, Mississaugo, Ontario L5C 2C5, Canada

Dozier, Robert, Lewisville, TX 75067-3305, USA;

Drew, Horace R., Putney 2112, NSW, Australia

Dring, Dr. Andrew R., Baltimore, MD 21234-5217, USA;

Driscoll, Robert B., (affiliated with Istituto per la Ricerca di Base, Molise, Italy), Oakland, CA 94604, USA
(GE; NPA96, 97c)

Drury, Prof. David M., Electrical Engineering Department, University of Wisconsin-Platteville, WI 53818, USA;

Dufour, Yvon, St. Romuald, Quebec G6W 3S4, Canada;

Dulaney, Dr. Clarence L., chemist, Missouri City, TX 77489, USA
(NPA97a,c, 98b, 99, 00, 01) (LT invalid)

Dunning, William, Clinton Corners, NY 12514, USA

Dürr, Dr. Charles, doctor of law, 6513 Monte Carasso, Switzerland
(1961 cf. Moch)

Durrance, Fred Y., Houston, TX 77024, USA

+Edwards, Dr. J.C., medical doctor & polymath, editor of BASRA, Canada

Edwards, Matthew R., Science and Medicine Library, University of Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A5, Canada;

Edwards, Walter George, Redondo Beach, CA 90277, USA

Ehlers, Hans-Joachim, Ed. Raum und Zeit, Ehlers Verlag GmbH, 82515 Wolfratshausen, Germany

Elliott, George, Tucson, AZ 85749-9399, USA

Enders, Prof. Dr. Achim, Institut für Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit, TU Braunschweig, Germany
(superluminal; cf. Twain94 and FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Engel, Stew L., Fredericksburg, VA 22401-6011, USA;

Enzmann, Dr. Robert, Lexington, MA 02173, USA

Epstein, Lewis C., San Francisco, CA 94107, USA

+Essen, Dr. Louis, Bookham, Surrey, UK

Essen, Ray, UK

Fabeni, P.
(superluminal; cf. Twain FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Fadner, W.I., Germany
(1988 cf. Moch)

Fahr, Prof. Hans-Jörg Helmut, Department of Astrophysics, Bonn University, Germany
(1984 cf. Moch)

Faraj, Ali A.

Farmer, Billy L., El Paso, TX 79912, USA

Farsky, Hermann
(1925 cf. Moch)

Fein, Dr. Yochanan, Newtown, CT 06470, USA

Feinberg, Dr. Gerald (*1933), Former Prof. & Chair, Physics Dept., Columbia University, NY, USA
(superluminal; cf. Twain FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Feist, Norbert, Augsburg, Germany

Feldman, Bernard, Watsonville, CA 95076, USA

+Feltgen, Dr. Reiner, D-37688 Beverungen, Germany

Fernandes, Joaquim, 40233 Porto Codex, Portugal

Fernandez, Fabio, Brazil

+Fernandez, Major John P., Los Angeles, CA, USA

Ferrigno, Antonio, European Patent Office, 2280HV Rijswijk, Netherlands

+Fleming, Patrick, Clontarf, Dublin 3, Ireland

Fonda, Roland A., Andrews, NC 28901, USA

Fontenot, Michel L., Boulder, CO 80303, USA

+Fowler, Shannon, Santa Maria, CA 93455, USA

Fox, Hal, Ed. J. New Energy, Trenergy Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84158, USA;
(exNPA; NPA96, 97b, 98b, 99, 00) (superluminal)

Frey, Paul K., Redwood Valley, CA 95470, USA

Friebe, Dipl. Ing. Ekkehard (*1927), Regierungsdirektor i.R. (Deutsches Patentamt, Muenchen), 81737 München, Germany
(1989& cf. Moch)

Fritsch, Dr. Alois, 8600 Bruck/Mur, Austria

Fritzius, Robert S., Starkville, MS 39759, USA
(NPA96, 98a)

Gaasenbeek, J. L., Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Gabuzda, D.C., National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, Arizona 85726, USA
(superluminal; cf. Twain95 and FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Gaiteri, Lee (a.k.a. Lummox JR)

Galeczki, Dr. George, 51061 Cologne, Germany;
(Ap94-00; GE; NPA96, 99, 00) (LT invalid; -AAAD)

Galeriu, Cãlin, Dept. of Physics, Clark Univ., Worcester, MA 01610, USA;

Gamboa-Eastman, Stephen, San Francisco, CA 94119-1012, USA
(cf. Twain95)

Garrett, C.G.B.
(superluminal; cf. Twain95 and FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Gartelmann, Henri
(1920f. cf. Moch)

Gatto, Dr. Luis F., Facultad de Ingeneria, U.N.C., 8300 Neuquen, Argentina

Gehrcke, Prof. Erich, Germany
(1918 cf. Moch)

Gehrcke, Prof. Dr. Ernst (1878-1960), Germany
(1920, 1924 cf. Moch)

Geppert, H.
(1923 cf. Moch)

Gerteis, Martel, Germany
(1984 cf. Moch)

Geruhn, Siegfried
(1988 cf. Moch)

Giakos, Dr. George C., Biomedical Engineering Dept., University of Akron, Akron, OH, USA
(superluminal; cf. Twain95)

Gieskieng, Dave, Arvada, Colorado 80005, USA

Gifford, John F., Corrales, NM 87048, USA

Glasgow, Phillip N., Florence, CO 81226, USA;

Golling, Otto, Germany

Graneau, Neal, Dept. of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PJ, U.K.;
(GE) (+AAAD)

Graneau, Prof. Peter, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
(NPA97b, 00) (+AAAD)

Grimer, Francis J., Harrow HA3 0DA, U.K.;

Gruffat, Dr. Jean-Jacques, 42023 St. Etienne Cedex 2, France;

Guala-Valverde, Prof. Jorge A., Fundación Julio Palacios- Copade- Comahue University, 8300-Neuquén, Argentina

Gulati, S. P. & S.,India

Gunnufson, Craig, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA

Gut, Dr. Bernardo (1942*), CH 4058 Basel, Switzerland;
(1981 cf. Moch, NPA96)

Haag, Phil, Mansfield, IL 61854, USA;

Haedicke, Johannes
(1932 cf. Moch)

Hanks, Craig D., Bellingham, WA 98227, USA
alternative url

Hannon, Robert J., Sarasota, FL 34238, USA
(NPA96, 97c, 98b) (LT invalid. Engineer. Argues in article, scandalously published in Physics Essays, that the LT implies x = x'.)

Hansen Jr., John D., Vista, CA 92083 619/599-0700, USA

Harms, John K., Garden Valley, CA 95633, USA

Harter, Nolen, Santa Margerita, CA 93453, USA

Harris, Lt.-Cdr. Colin (SIS), St. Agnes, Cornwall, TR5 0ND, U.K.

Harvey, Bruce, U.K.

Hatch, Ronald R., Wilmington, CA 90744, USA
(GE; NPA96, 97c, 99, 00, 02)

Hatsagortsian, K.Z.
(superluminal; cf. Twain FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Haulman, Dr. Daniel L., Montgomery, AL 36106, USA

Hayden, Dr. Howard C., Prof. Em. (Physics Research Group Affiliation Condensed Matter Physics) University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, U.S.A.; Ed., The Energy Advocate (1996), former Ed., Galilean Electrodynamics
(NPA97b guest speaker only)

Hazelett, Richard, Colchester, VT 05446, USA;
(NPA97b,c, 98a, 00, 02)

Hebert, Alvin Joseph, Torrance, CA 90501, USA

Hecht, Andreas, Germany

Hegedu ic, Prof. Mladen
(1986 cf. Moch)

Heinson, Johannes
(1933 cf. Moch)

Heinze, Harald, 5036 Oberentfelden, Switzerland

Heitmann, Dr. Winfried, II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Köln, Germany
(superluminal; cf. Twain FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Henderson, Robert L., Sun City, AZ 8855351-1163, USA; and
(GE; NPA96)

Higgins, Prof. Thomas J., Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA

+Hill, Charles M.

Hille, Helmut (+AAAD), Heilbronn, Germany

Hillion, Dr. P., Institut Henri Poincare, 78110 Le Vesinet, France

Hinton, Douglas, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA

Hodges, Dr. James N., (alternative url)
Founder-Director, S.J.Prokhovnik Institute (1997), Ether Drift Club, Melton, Victoria 3337, Australia
(NPA96, 97b, 00)

Hoffman, Jon (dead link:

Höpfner, Ludwig
(1921 cf. Moch)

Hoppe, Helmut, Germany

Horzela, Andrzej, Dept. Theoretical Physics, H. Niewodniczanski Inst. Nuclear Physics, 31 342 Krakow, Poland

Hron, Roland L., Eden Prairie, MN 55347, USA;

Huffman, H. Dwight, Atascadero, CA 93423, USA

Hund, Prof. Em. Friedrich, Göttingen, Germany
(1980 cf. Moch)

Hunter, Dr. Geoffrey, Dept. of Chemistry, York Univ., Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3, Canada;

Illert, Chris (alternative url), Corrimal, NSW 2518 Australia

Ishii, Thomas Koryu
(superluminal; cf. Twain95)

Ishiwata, Susumu

Israel, Dr. Hans
(1929f. cf. Moch)

+Jaakkola, Toiko, University of Turku, Finland

Jansen, Maarten, Netherlands

Jefimenko, Prof. Oleg D., Dept. of Physics, West Virgina Univ., Eberly Coll. Arts and Sciences, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315, USA
(GE) (+AAAD)

Jesch, Richard, Richmond, CA 94804, USA;

Johnson, J.F., Roanoke, VA 24014-5720, USA

Johnson, Mike, Phoenix, AZ 85018, USA

Joica, Nicu

Jonson, Jan Olof, 12342 Farsta (Stockhom), Sweden;
(NPA00, 02)

Jontschow, Th.
(1928 cf. Moch)

Joyce, Dr. Kathleen, former ed., 1978-83, Energy Unlimited, Grand Junction, CO 81502, USA

Jungmann, D., Germany
(1983 cf. Moch)

Kammerer, E., Germany
(1961, 1986 cf. Moch)

Kanarev, Prof. Dr. Ph. M., Krasnodar, Russia;
(GE; NPA97b)

Kantor, Wallace, San Diego, CA 92120, USA

Kapuscik, Edward, Dept. Theor. Physics, H. Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, 31 342 Krakow; Department of Foundations of Physics, Kracow Pedagogical University, 30 084, Krakow, Poland
(GE) (-AAAD)

Keller, Hugo
(1924 cf. Moch)

Kelly, Dr. Edward M., Alta Loma, CA 91701, USA
(GE; NPA96)

Kempczynski, Jaroslav, Dept. Theoretical Physics, H. Niewodniczanski Inst. Nuclear Physics, 31 342 Krakow, Poland

Kent, Dr. Richmond, ed., Bulletin of the American Institute of Biomedical Climatology, Chepachet, RI 02814, USA;

Kerr, Robert, Oro Valley, AZ 85737, USA

Keys, C. Roy, ed., Apeiron, Montreal, Quebec H2W 2B2, Canada

Keyser, Charles

Kholmetsky, A.L., Dept. of Physics, Belarus State University, 220080, Minsk, Belarus
(Ap01; GE)

Kierein, John, Lafayette, CO 80026 USA
(NPA96, 00)

Kim, Deuk-Soo, 48159 Münster, Germany
(1987 cf. Moch)

Kim, S. H., Dept. of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, TX 76019, USA

Kizer, John B., Portsmouth, OH 45662, USA;
[dead link?]

Knapp, Wolfram, Germany
(1994 cf. Moch)

Kokus, Dr. Martin, Hartline Science Center, Bloomsburg, PA 17815 HSC 98, USA

Kollgaard, R.I.
(superluminal; cf. Twain95 and FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Kontrol, John, 1000 Brussels, Belgium

Kooistra, Jeffery D., Wyoming, MI 48509, USA;

Korneva, M. V., Dept. of Physics, State University of Voronezh, Russia

Kosowski, Prof. Stanislaus, 00-849 Warsaw, Poland

Kozuch, Michael E., Chicago, Illinois, USA;

Kraus, Gerhard, Bangkok, Thailand

Kraus, Otto
(1921 cf. Moch)

Kresse, Hugo, Germany
(1975 cf. Moch)

Kressebuch, Hugo, Germany
(1964 cf. Moch)

Kretzschmar, Harry, Ulm, Germany
(1987 cf. Moch)

Krinitzsky, Ellis L., Vicksburg, MS 39180-4552, USA

Kuemmel, Dr. Peter, 70794 Filderstadt-Bernhausen, bei Stuttgart, Germany
[dead link?:]

Kulba, Leslee A., Farmington Hills, MI 48336, USA

Kuligin, V. A., and G. A., Dept. of Physics, State University of Voronezh, Russia
(Ap94,96,00; GE)

Kuper, G.
(superluminal; cf. Twain FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Kwiat, Prof Dr. Paul G., Dept. of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, IL 61801-3080, USA
(superluminal; cf. Twain FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Lacerda, Carlos B.

Lamberty, Paul
(1925 cf. Moch)

Lange, Erik J.

Laun, Ludwig Wilhelm, Germany
(1992 cf. Moch)

Leal Ferreira, Dr. G. F., Inst. Fisica e Quimica de Sao Carlos, S.P., Brazil;

Lebau, Gerald , Boca Raton, FL 33434, USA

Lee, Jeffrey, Mindsight Publications, Raleigh, NC 27650, USA
(NPA96, 97a,b)

Lessner, David, Claymont, DE 19703, USA

Lévy, Joseph;

Li, Dr. Wen-Xiu, Dept. of Earth & Space Sciences, Univ. of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029, P.R. China
(Ap95; GE)

Light, Daniel

Lipsius, F.R.
(1931 cf. Moch)

Lipson, S.G.
(superluminal; cf. Twain FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Littmann, Carl R., Wyncote, PA 19095, USA

Lounesto, Pertti, Helsinki Institute of Technology, Finnland;
[dead link?]

Love, Dr. Thomas Love, Dept of Physics, California State Univ. at Dominguez Hills, CA, USA

+Lu, Prof. Hoff, Dept. of Physics 11, Fu-Dan University, Shanghai, China

Lublinski, Jan
(1994 cf. Moch)

Lucas, Charles W. Jr., Ph.D. Physicist, Temple Hills, MD 20748, USA; and

Lumpe, Dr. Heribert, 69412 Eberbach, Germany

Luther, Otto, Germany
(1966 cf. Moch)

Luttgens, Marcel [search for new url of his excellent website in progress]

McAlister, Joe F. and John W., Delray Beach, FL 33444, USA

McCarthy, Dennis J., Norfold, MA 02056, USA;
(GE; NPA97b,c, 99, 00)

McCausland, Dr. Ian, Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G4
(NPA96 guest speaker only)

McCone, Alan, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
(GE; NPA02)

McCumber, D.E.
(superluminal; cf. Twain95 and FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

McCutcheon, Sean, Lexington Park, MD 20653, USA;

MacDonald, Keith, Manley, Queensland 4179, Australia

McKibben, Joseph L., Placentia, CA 922870-77504, USA
(NPA96, 99)

Maco, Emil Andrej,
(1988 cf. Moch)

Macrì, Rocco Vittorio, Assisi, Italy

+MacRoberts, Donald T., Shreveport, LA, USA

Majorana, Quirino (1871-1957), Prof., Dept. of Physics, Turin & Bologna; Italy

Malovic, Miodrag, Yugoslavia

Marinov, Dr. Stefan (1931-1997) (1960-74 Ass.Prof. Physics, Sofia University, Bulgaria) Graz, Austria

Marinsek, Johann, 8530 Deutsch-Landsberg, Austria;
(1994 cf. Moch)

Marklin, Dr. George J., Sugar Land, TX 77479, USA

Markson, John, Sylmar, CA 91342, USA;

Markweger, Robert, Germany

Marlor, Dr. Guy A., San Carlos, CA 94070, USA;

Marmet, Dr. Paul, Professor of Physics (retired), Physics Department, University of Ottawa, Ontario KIN 6N5, Canada
(NPA96, 00) (SR sometimes valid)

Marquardt, Dr. Peter, 50833 Cologne, Germany
(NPA96) (quantum physics; LT invalid)

Martin, Adolphe, Longueuil, Quebec J4J 3P9, Canada
(Ap94; NPA00)

Masterson, Capt. J.A., Seattle, WA 98101, USA

Matveenko, L.I., Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, RU - 117810 Moscow, Russia
(superluminal; cf. Twain95)

Means, Dale, San Benito, TX 785866, USA

Meany, David, Pleasanton, CA 94588, USA

Mehta, Ardeshir, Ottawa, Canada

Melcher, Prof. Dr. Dr. Horst, Potsdam, Germany

Melehy, Dr. Mahmoud A., Prof. Em. Electrical and Systems Engineering, University of Connecticut, Scotland, CT 062264, USA;
(NPA96, 97b, 98a, 99, 00)

Mellin, Prof. Robert Hjalmar (1854-1933), Dept. of Mathematics, Technical University of Finland
(1926 cf. Moch)

Meyl, Prof. Dr. Konstantin, 78112 St. Georgen, Germany

Miller, Michael, Calgary, AB T3G 3T2, Canada

Milnes, Dr. Harold Willis, Editor, Toth-Maatian-Review, Lubbock, TX 79410, USA
(superluminal; cf. Twain FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Mirabel , I.F.
(superluminal; cf. Twain95 and FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Misu, Max, Dept. of Physics, University of Kyoto, Japan

Mitis, Lothar
(1931 cf. Moch)

Mitsopoulos, Dr. Theodore D., Athens 15669, Greece

Mocanu, Prof. C. I., Head of Electrical Engineering Dept., Polytechnic Institute of Bucharest, Romania
(GE) (-AAAD)

Moch, Norbert (*1960), 30163 Hannover, Germany

Mohorovicic, Prof. Dr. Stjepan (1890-1980), Dept of Physics, University of Zagreb, Croatia

Molnar, Pal R., 2300 Rackeve, Hungary;
(GE; NPA96)

Mongold Harry, Manhattan, IL 60442, USA

Monstein, Dipl.Ing. Christian, 8807 Freienbach, Switzerland; (home:) and (work:)

Montanus, Hans

Monti, Dr. Roberto A., Istituto TESRE - CNR, 40129 Bologna, Italy
Comment: The webpage mentions the major paper where Dr. M. erects and refutes from experimental data the strawman according to which the space-time transform of SR presumes the velocity vector to be c in all systems of reference. In view of the abysmal poverty of SR logic one despairs at such 'refutations' coming from the highest academic quarters; a typical waste of critical effort, intimidating by its very learnedness. The defining equations of SR, in the symbolism customary before the adoption of vector algebra, involve the scalar norms |ct|, |ct'| only; as is evident from the figurative representation denoted by these equations, the corresponding displacement vectors differ in magnitude and, unless y, z, = 0, direction. If t, t' are scalar, it is clear that, in itself, the quantity c cannot denote a vector. The mathematical obsession with 4D obscures that a transform of this kind corresponds to a change of the unit vector, say r0 and r'0, which must therefore be rendered explicit. The derivatives, moreover, whether scalar, namely c, or vector, namely cr0 and cr'0, depend on the basis, namely t or t'. Depending on the choice of basis, one and the same quantity c refers therefore to different speeds or velocities.

Morely, Michelson H.

+Morgan, Harvey, USA
(NPA97a, 98b)

Morgan, L. Frank, Newhall, CA 91321-1805, USA

Mugnia, D.
(superluminal; cf. Twain FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Müller, Aloys, Germany
(1922 cf. Moch and entry for M. in

Müller, Bernd, Redakteur Bild der Wissenschaft, Germany
(1994 cf. Moch)

Müller, Berthold, Germany

Müller, Francisco J., Miami, FL 33144, USA
(NPA96, 97b,c, 98a,b, 99, 00, 02)

Müller, Dr. Ing. Martin, D-72793 Pfullingen, Germany;
(1989 cf. Moch, NPA99, 00, 02)

Munch, Neil E., Pres., Munch Engineering Corp., Montgomery Village, MD 20886, USA
(GE; NPA96, 97b, 98b, 99, 00, 02) (LT invalid.)

Comment: By default, M., an engineer, has come to establish himself as THE star speaker on SR and its maths at NPA and St. Petersburg conferences; also speaker in Bologna and Cologne. Unfortunately, precisely because the LT is, indeed, not the correct solution of the given mathematical problem, efforts of this kind are counter-productive. Not only are they at best completely useless for those unwilling or unable to study existing expositions; more seriously, they are ignored by professionals like Prof. Bartocci and serve to bring the community of critics into disrepute. (I have sent a protest to conference organizers who should know better. In the present dissident climate it is, of course, anathema to question the value of conference rhetoric.)
For M. is insensible of
1. the meaning of learned mathematical jargon;
2. the constraints upon symbol use;
3. the confusion of at least three different algebras (3D displacements; 4D quadratic-hyperbolic - Minkowski&Poincaré; 4D linear Klein-Noether translation&rotation);
4. the operationalist fallacy (here: the wholly illicit contention that geometric quantities depend on who looks at what where and when).
Tortuously circular operations, involving fictitious elements 'seen', from a profound ignorance of the meaning of mathematical terms and symbols, and a confused notion that the Lorentz factor g refers to the ratio between different displacements. Supervenient on the direction-dependent scale transformation, the factor denotes, of course, the paradoxically reciprocal ratio between equal displacements; see below.

Múnera, Héctor A., Centro Internacional de Fisica, Bogota, DC Colombia;

Munshi, Jamal, USA

Nedwed, Dr. Rudolf, 60200 Brno, Czech Republic
(1964 cf. Moch)

Neiswander, Dr. Robert S., Cambria, CA 93428, USA
(GE; NPA96)

Nerad, Dr. Ludek, 28911 Pecky, Czech Republic

Neundorf, Wolfgang, D - 03054 Cottbus, Germany

Newman, Steve, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA

Nimtz, Prof Dr. Günter, II. Phys. Inst. Univ. Köln, Germany
(superluminal; cf. Twain94 and FTL/LNSTrefs.html)
See the comment to the entry Chiao.

Nisle, Robert G., CDR USNR (Ret), Idaho Falls, ID 83404, USA

Noninski, Prof. Dr. Vesselin C., New York, NY 10011, USA

Nordberg, John T., c/o FUGIO, Eden Prairie, MN 55344-2458, USA

Nowak, Karl, Dipl. Ing., Vienna, Austria

O'Barr, Gerald L.

Öberg, Rickard, Sweden

Obolensky, Alexis Guy (alternative url),
Natural Energy Institute, Sloatsburg, NY 10974, USA;

Ofner, Peter F., Medlow Bath, NSW 2780, Australia;
(NPA96, 97b) (LT invalid)

Oldani, Richard, Clymer, NY 14724, USA
(NPA98b, 99, 00, 01) (quantum physics; SR valid)

Oliveira Jr., O. N., Instituto de Fisica e Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, S.P., Brazil

Oliwa, Chris, Scarborough, Ontario M1V 5M3, Canada

Oman, Dr. Henry, ed., Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine [IEEE], Seattle, WA 98166, USA

Onoochin, Dr. Vladimir, Russia

Orefice, Prof. Adriano, Universita di Milano, Italy

Orlov, Walter, Germany

Ott, Edwin Eugene, USA

[dead link: search for new url in progress] Owen, Bill, Brigalow Park, Urunga, NSW, Australia 2455

Owen Sr., William H., Marrickville, NSW 2204, Australia;

Page, Dr. Geoffrey, Fareham, Hants PO14 4LE, England

Pagels, Kurt, Germany
(1985& cf. Moch)
(Mathematician. Typical anti-SR argument: LT mathematically valid, but physics an inexact science.)

Palka, Henry, Farmington, CT 06032, USA

Palmieri, Renato, Italy;
alternative url:

Panarella, Dr. Emilio, Editor, Physics Essays, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6, Canada

Pappas, Dr. Panos T. (former Professor, Dept. of Physics, Division of Mechanics), 11744 Athens, Greece
(superluminal, space-theorist)

+Parshin, Prof. Pavel Fyedorovich (Head of Dept. of Physics, Academy of Civil Aviation, St. Peterburg), Russia

Patschke, Arthur
(1922 cf. Moch)

Pavlovic, Milan R., Belgrade, Yugoslavia

Pazdernik, Dr. LeRoy, American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

Pazzi, G.P.
(superluminal; cf. Twain FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Pearce, Frank G.

Pearson, Timothy J., California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
(superluminal; cf. Twain95)

Peczi, Gusztáv
(1923 cf. Moch)

Pellegrini, Gerald, Worcester, MA 01604, USA

Peshchevitskiy, Prof. Boris Ivanovich, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia

Petrascheck, Dr. Karl Otto
(1922 cf. Moch)

Phipps Jr., Dr. Thomas E., Urbana, IL 61801, USA;
(GE; NPA97c) (superluminal, +AAAD)

Pine, Robert, Rosharon, TX 77583, USA

Pobedonostsev, Dr. Lev A., Radium Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg, Russia

Popal, Azimullah, Van Nuys, CA 91401, USA

Post, Dr. Evert Jan, Westchester [Los Angeles], CA 90045-3357, USA;
(GE; NPA00, 02)

Power, Desmond
(superluminal; cf. Twain FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Preikschat, F. K., Germany
(1976 cf. Moch)

Preußker, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Horst, D-25469 Halstenbek, Germany
(cf. Twain95)

Pugh, M. Lee, Coffeyville, KS 67337, USA

Rado, Steven, Los Angeles, CA 90035, USA
(NPA96, 97c, 00)

Raiford, Dr. Maurice T., Oviedo, FL 32762, USA;

Ranfagni, A.
(superluminal; cf. Twain95 and FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Rath, Sashibhusan, West Singhbhum, Bihar 833223, India

Reber, Grote, Bothwell, Tasmania 7030, Australia
(NPA96, 99)

Rebigsol, Cameron Y. (Cameron Wong), San Francisco, Ca 94116, USA

Reising, Martin, Germany
(1987 cf. Moch)

Renshaw, Curtis E., Tele-Consultants, Inc., Alpharetta, GA 30005, USA
(GE; NPA96, 97a,b, 98a, 99)

Richter, Dr. Gustav
(1931 cf. Moch)

Riem, Johannes
(1920f. cf. Moch)

Roberts, D.H.
(superluminal; cf. Twain95 and FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Roderlich-Stoltheim, F. (pseud. f. Theodor Fritsch)
(1921 cf. Moch)

Rodrigues Jr., Dr. Waldyr A., Institute of Mathematics (IMECC), UNICAMP, Brazil

Rodriguez, Luis F., Instituto de Astronomia, UNAM, Campus Morelia, Mexico
(superluminal; cf. Twain95 and FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Rodriguez, Miguel (graduate student of Prof. Spavieri), Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela

Romano, Benedetto, 80040 San Sebastiano al Vesuvio, Italy; urls as for Palmieri

Romero, Ferdinand, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Roos, Jan P., Burlington, MA 01803, USA;

Ropiequet, Richard L., Estacada, Oregon, USA

Röschlau, Dr. rer. nat., Helmut, Germany
(1981 cf. Moch)

Rosen, Alexander, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Alabama (Tuscaloosa), USA
(superluminal; cf. Twain95 and FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Rosignoli, Carlo, White Plains, NY 10601-1101, USA;

Rosignoli, David, Langhorne, PA 19047, USA;

Ross, Cecil

Rovinetti, Ercole, Denham Springs, LA 70726, USA

Rowbottom, Darrell

Rowe, Dr. Paul E., Mashpee, MA 02649, USA;
(NPA97b, 00)

Ruckhaber, Dr. Erich
(1931 cf. Moch)

Rudakov, Dr. N., P.O. Box 723, Geelong, Victoria 3213, Australia
(cf. Twain95)

Ruderman, Malvin A., Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
(superluminal; cf. Twain95 and FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Rudzinski, K.
(1971 cf. Moch)

Rybczyk, Joseph A.

Rynne, T. M., c/o ESJ Network, Leicester NC 28748, USA
(cf. Twain96)

Saha, Jnan R., Wesley Hills, NY 10952-5227, USA

Salongo, Paul, San Diego, CA 92126, USA;

Sandgathe, Franz
(1928 cf. Moch)

Santilli, Prof. Dr. Ruggero M., ed., Hadronic Journal; President, Institute for Basic Research, Palm Harbor, FL 34682, USA

Sapper, Prof. Dr. Karl, Graz, Austria
(1939, 1952-58 cf. Moch)

Saumont, Dr. Rémi, 92160 Antony, France

Sauvé, Vincent, Oakland, CA 94612, USA

Schmidt, Dr. Wolfgang, 67433 Neustadt, Germany
(1983& cf. Moch)

Schneider, Horst, 03096 Burg/Spreewald, Germany

Schön, Manfred, 1050 Wien S, Austria

Schuh, Bernd
(1993 cf. Moch)

Schulz, Dr.-Ing. Jürgen, A-9544 Feld-am-See, Kärnten, Austria

Schumacher, Dr. Berthold W., Dearborn, MI 48126, USA

Schuster, Friedrich, 97762 Hammelburg, Germany
(1989 cf. Moch)

Seavey, Craig M.

Seitz, A.
(1925 cf. Moch)

Sekerin, Dr. Vladimir Illich, Novosibirsk, Russia

Selleri, Prof. Franco, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, 70126 Bari, Italy
(NPA00, 02) (4D alternatives to LT; -AAAD)

Sereno, Dr. Giano, 83000 Toulon, France;

Seto, Ken H., Ireland
(GE); cf. Twain97)
(This comment applies to all aether objections to SR. These objections, however learned, miss the point and confuse the issue. A relativistic transform establishes formal invariance provided there exists one isotropic scenario, regardless whether ballistic or aether-based: that is why SR is believed to have settled the matter. The objection should have been, first, that the purely formal-symbolic invariant transform would be geometrically useless because inapplicable - direction-dependent time-units - and second, that the LT is not even the correct solution of the simple if silly 'problem'.)

+Sherwin, Dr. Chalmers, San Diego, CA, USA

Shifman, Jerry, The Sea Ranch, CA 95497, USA

Shimmin, William "Lee", Houston, TX 77055-6933, USA;
(GE; NPA96, 98b, 01) (anti-relativity; SR invalid)

Shpitalnaya, Dr. Alexandra A., St. Petersburg Oberservatory, Russia

Siepmann, Dr. James P., ed. Journal of Theoretics, Oshkosh, WI 54904, USA

Silliman, Norman, Pleasant Hill, CA 94523-2808, USA;

Silvertooth, Dr. E.W., Olga, WA 90279, USA

Slaughter, Wilbur, Redlands, CA 92373-0121, USA

Smid, Thomas, UK

Smith, Adolph E., Santa Cruz, CA 95060-2345, USA;

Smith, Peter, Long Ashton, Bristol BS18 9DA, U.K.

Smulsky, Prof. Joseph J., Institute of Earth Cryosphere, Tyumen, Russia

Solomon, Dr. Robert D., Framingham, MA 01703, USA

Spavieri, Gianfranco, Prof. Dr. (*1942), Centro de Astrofísica Teórica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela

Speicher, Stephen, California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA

Spinò, Salvatore; urls as for Palmieri

Squires, Euan J. (1933-1996), Dept. of Physics, University of Durham, UK
(superluminal; cf. Twain FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Sternglass, Dr. Ernest, Pittsburg, PA 15213, USA
(NPA00, 01)

Stettler, John, Royse City, TX 75189, USA
(NPA00, 02)

Stilmar, Robert L., Midvale, UT 84047, USA; and
(GE; NPA97b, 98b, 99, 00, 01)

Strasser, Hans
(1923 cf. Moch)

Strehl, K.
(1922 cf. Moch)

Strel'tsov, Dr. V. N., Laboratory of High Energies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980, Russia;
(Ap98,99; NPA00) (4D LT valid, but implies stretching, not contraction)

Sungenis Robert, USA

Surin, Yury Y., St. Petersburg, Russia

Szabo, Charles, 1600 Sint Pieters Leeuw, Belgium

Szego, Laszlo, Bondi, NSW 2026, Australia
(NPA96, 97b)

Tarter, Donald E., New Market, AL 35761, USA;

Tedenstig, Ove, S-19 551 Märsta, Sweden

Templeman, Garth
(superluminal; cf. Twain FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Teppo, Karl, Mermaid Waters 4218, Queensland, Australia

+Theimer, Walter, Germany
(1977& cf. Moch)

Theocharis, Dr. Theo (*1952) (formerly of Department of Physics, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London), London, U.K.

Thompson, Caroline, UK

Tipnis, Sharad, Adarshnagar, Pune Satara Road, Pune 411 037, India
(1985 cf. Moch)

Tiwari, S. C., Dept. of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India
(Ap92) (+AAAD)

Todoroff, Georg, Dipl.-Mathematiker (*1949), D-78068 Bad Dürrheim, Germany
("Toderoff" 1987 cf. Moch)

Tolchel'nikova-Murri, Dr. Svetlana A., Pulkovo Observatory, 196140 St. Petersburg, Russia;

Tombe, Prof. F. David, Belfast BT15 5HU, Northern Ireland, U.K.

Traunmueller, Hartmut, S-187-70, Taby, Sweden

+Trempe, Jacques, Otterburn Park, Quebec J3H 1P9, Canada

Turner, Dr. Dean, Greeley, CO 80634, USA

Turner, William B., Palm Beach FL 33480-4109, USA
(superluminal; cf. Twain97)

Tuttle, Robert J., Moorpark, CA 93021-1349, USA

Twain, Millennium, USA

Twiss, Frank, Sammamish, WA 98075, USA;

VanderByl Sr., Leo, Abbotsford, B.C. V4X 2J4, Canada

van der Merwe, Prof. Alwyn J., Editor: Foundations of Physics, and: Foundations of Physics Letters, Physics & Astronomy Department, Denver, CO 0208, USA

Van Dromme, Leo, B 3001 Heverlee, Belgium

Van Engen, Randall

Van Flandern, Dr. Thomas, Senior Research Associate, Dept. of Physics, University of Maryland; ed.: Meta Research Bulletin, Chevy Chase, MD 20825, USA
(NPA97b, 98a, 00)

Vigier, Jean-Pierre, Institute Henri Poincaré, Paris, France
(superluminal; cf. Twain FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

von Gleich, Gerold
(1930 cf. Moch)

Vrana, Ralph, Concord, CA 94519, USA

Waage, Victor M., Duluth, MN 55806, USA

Wagner, Dan, Wynnewood, PA 19096, USA

Wählin, Lars, Director, Colutron Research Corp., Boulder, CO 80301, USA

+ Waldron, Prof. R. A., Prof. of Mathematics, University of Ulster, U.K.

Walker, Fred L., Monterey CA 93940, USA;
(NPA96, 98b, 00)

Walker, Nancy, Bryans Road, MD 20616-3264, USA

+Wallace, Dr. Bryan G., St. Petersburg, FL 33710, USA

Walte, W.
(1921 cf. Moch)

Walton, G. (Mrs.) (*1930) (expelled fr NPA), 18 St. Swithun Street, Winchester SO23 9JP, U.K.;

Wang, Ruyong, Cloud State Univ., St. Cloud, MN 56301, USA

Wang, Shi-Ming, Institute of Nuclear Research, Academia Sinica, Shanghai, China

Wardle, Prof. John F.C., Dept. of Astrophysics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, USA
(superluminal; cf. Twain95 and FTL/LNSTrefs.html)

Wasl, Bernd, 56567 Neuwied-Segendorf, Germany

Watson, Dr. John, Battle, E. Sussex, TN33 9BN, U.K.

Weber, Charles, Hendersonville, NC 28739, USA
(NPA00, 02)

Wehr, Günther, Germany
(1980 cf. Moch)

Weinmann, Dr. Rudolf
(1921f. cf. Moch)

Weiß, Herbert, Germany
(1991 cf. Moch)

Weitzel, Donald F., Winnetka, CA 91306, USA

Wesley, Dr. J. Paul, 78176 Blumberg, Germany
(GE) (Global Dissident Physics Survey)

Westergard, Billie, Hockessin, DE 19707, USA;

Weyland, Paul
(1921 cf. Moch)

Whitney, A.R.
(superluminal; cf. Twain95)

+Wilczynski, Dr. Jozef, Wroclaw, Poland

Wilhelm, Prof. E.H., Prof. Em., Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
(Ap92,93,94; GE)

Winterberg, Prof. Dr. Friedwardt, Desert Research Institute, Dept of Physics, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557-0058, USA
(NPA98b, guest speaker only)

Wolff, Theodor
(1932 cf. Moch)

Wong, S. Simon, Professor of Electrical Engineering, Center for Integrated Systems, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4070, USA
(superluminal; cf. Twain95)

Wright, James B., Yreka, CA 96097, USA;
(NPA97c, 00)

Wu, W. H., Markham, Ont. L3R 3R6, Canada; or

Wutke, Andrzej, Mount Kuring, Gai, Australia;
[dead link?]

Wyse, Alastair, U.K.

Xu Shaozhi, Dr. (alternative url), Beijing Control Device Research Institute, P.R. China;
(Ap93,97; GE; NPA96, 97b) (LT invalid)

Yi, Yong-Gwan, Dobong-dong Dobong-ku, Seoul 132-012 Korea;
(Ap96,99) (-AAAD)

Yost, Charles A., ed. Electric Spacecraft Journal, Leicester, NC 28748, USA

+Zapffe, Dr. Carl A.

Zboril, I.
(1925 cf. Moch)

Zins, Steven Douglas, San Mateo, CA 94401, USA

Part 2:


2.1. Tower of Babel: On the nature of relativistic effects
2.2. References and reading list

Simplistic philosophical notions, ignorant of the role, purely logical nature and difficulty of quantification, have given rise to the false belief that SR and GR are theories. GR, not formulated by Einstein, trivially, applies an alternative geometry - as shown by measurements, one not remotely understood by practising physicists. SR, emerging long before Einstein, successively spells out the implications of the mathematical discovery (the LT) that a purely geometric transformation of the auxiliary ('time') scale [such that |OiP| = |cti|] renders all geometric quantities reciprocally contracted (N.B.: an uncaused dynamic effect - if true, rightly regarded as of world-shaking philosophical significance). This remarkable result was contemporaneous with the paradoxical Cantor-Peano proofs, the Frege-Helmholtz-Husserl caution as to the unknowable 'behaviour' of large (finite!) numbers, and the revolutionary Lorentz-Poincaré proposition that we may assume equal (sic) displacements, e.g. x' and (x - vt), to differ by a so-called Lorentz factor.

The LT, first formulated in Goettingen, is a forerunner of the increasingly sophisticated algebras that have become the norm in theoretical physics. (Regrettably, Felix Klein's History Vol.2, a source text without equal, blueprint for space-time transforms to date, has apparently never been translated.) It might have been noticed that neither this algebra, valid for numbers only, nor the Lorentz-FitzGerald notion of contraction, is applicable to the displacements of the geometry of motion, i.e. of physics. In addition, one might have recognized that, for the explictly defined geometric scenario, the LT and all formulae derived from it are self-contradictory and therefore unverifiable; the waste of resources on confirming or refuting the SR phantom is inexcusable. Asynchronous clocks, furthermore, are common in ordinary usage; changes of the time scale or clock rate are therefore as basic as changes from Fahrenheit to Celsius, or from inches to metres. Objections from physics and ontological considerations (e.g. nature of space, time) serve to distract attention from the scandal that the LT is not the correct solution of an utterly simple geometric problem. That the correct solution would not be practical is beside the point; the real difficulty - for a subject like physics that depends on the validity of its quantification procedures - is that the LT is accepted as impeccable even by virtually all critics of SR.

What of Einstein? In defence of pars 1&2 of the celebrated 1905 paper R.B. Angel writes that Einstein cannot mean what he appears to be saying. Surely, if in doubt one turns to the mathematical exposition which would mercylessly expose any shoddy thinking. Friends (e.g. Fritz Stern) and admirers (the 1967 BBC documentary) comment on Einstein's illogicality and singular lack of the critical faculty. Jacques Barzun warns that Einstein's fêting as genius exposes the entire scientific community to contempt. Not surprisingly, the crucial pars 3-5 of the 1905 paper are not only incoherent but grossly so; equally unsurprisingly, the genius appears unaware that all supposedly dynamic effects would necessarily be reciprocal. (The much acclaimed 'deep' insight into the frame-independence of the laws of physics appears singularly feeble-minded. The independence had been guaranteed in classical physics by the 'Galilean' correction for the change of origin; it has been ABOLISHED in SR.) Why does one keep mulling over Einstein's sayings?

One enters the 'debate' with dismay. The acceptance of the LT as mathematically valid, and the quality of existing objections, signal an incompetence beyond belief. The requisite 'algebra', intuitively tackled by every infant, is summarized in sufficient detail at the start of every maths textbook for engineers; people who have not mastered this elementary stage of common sense cognition should not be doing physics. With great reluctance, I present a sketchy discussion of expositions in page 2.

2.1. Tower of Babel

This is the edited version of an item distributed among critics in 1997. Once we begin to understand what has gone wrong, we may marvel at the ingenuity of generations of thinkers in rationalizing the outcome of an utterly simple but faulty geometric argument.

On the nature of relativistic effects

Note: Checking on a source revealed a discrepancy which, apart from deleting the offending item, I have solved by the wholesale demotion of all quotations to the status of summaries.
The reciprocal effect of length contraction and time dilation, which appears by logical necessity to emerge from the kinematic part of the special theory of relativity, has been variously explained as

1. true but not really true (guess who)
2. real
3. not real
4. apparent
5. the result of the relativity of simultaneity
6. determined by measurement
7. a perspective effect
8. mathematical.

Here is a small selection from the literature; references are found at the end of Part 2. Unless placed in quotation marks, authors' assessments are summarized.

1. Effects are true but not really true:

Pride of place goes to Eddington [1928, 33-34]:

"The shortening of the moving rod is true , but it is not really true."
(Thanks to Prof. I. McCausland, Toronto, for contributing this gem.)

2. Effects are real:

Arzelies [1966, 120-121]:

The Lorentz Contraction is a Real Phenomenon. ...
Several authors have stated that the Lorentz contraction only seems to occur, and is not real. This idea is false. So far as relativistic theory is concerned, this contraction is just as real as any other phenomenon. Admittedly ... it is not absolute, but depends upon the system employed for the measurement; it seems that we might call it an apparent contraction which varies with the system. This is merely playing with the words, however. We must not confuse the reality of a phenomenon with the independence of this phenomenon of a change of system. ... The difficulty arises because we have become accustomed to the geometrical concept of a rigid body with a definite shape, whatever the measuring system. This idea must be abandoned. ... We must use the term "real" for every phenomenon which can be measured ... The Lorentz Contraction is an Objective Phenomenon. ...
We often encounter the following remark: The length of a ruler depends upon its motion with respect to the observer. ... From this, it is concluded once again that the contraction is only apparent, a subjective phenomenon. ... such remarks ought to be forbidden.

Krane [1983, 23-25]:

It must be pointed out that time dilation is a real effect that applies not only to clocks based on light beams but to time itself. All clocks will run more slowly as observed from the moving frame of reference. ...
The length measured by the moving observer is shorter. It must be emphasized that this is a real effect.

Matveyev [1966, 305]:

The dimensions of bodies suffer contraction in the direction of motion ... A body is, therefore, "flattened" in the direction of motion. This effect is a real effect ...

Møller [1972, 44]:

Contraction is a real effect observable in principle by experiment. It expresses, however, not so much a quality of the moving stick itself as rather a reciprocal relation between measuring-sticks in motion relative to each other. ... According to relativistic conception, the notion of the length of a stick has an unambiguous meaning only in relation to a given inertial frame. ... This means that the concept of length has lost its absolute meaning.

Pauli [1981, 12-13]:

We have seen that this contraction is connected with the relativity of simultaneity, and for this reason the argument has been put forward that it is only an "apparent" contraction, in other words, that it is only simulated by our space-time measurements. If a state is called real only if it can be determined in the same way in all Galilean reference systems, then the Lorentz contraction is indeed only apparent, since an observer at rest in K' will see the rod without contraction. But we do not consider such a point of view as appropriate, and in any case the Lorentz contraction is in principle observable. ... It therefore follows that the Lorentz contraction is not a property of a single rod taken by itself, but a reciprocal relation between two such rods moving relatively to each other, and this relation is in principle observable.

Schwinger [1986, 52]:

Each will observe the other clock to be running more slowly. This is an objective fact. It is not a property of clocks but of time itself.

Tolman [1987, 23-24]:

Entirely real but symmetrical.

3. Relativistic effects are not physically real:

Taylor & Wheeler [1992, 76]:

Does something about a clock really change when it moves, resulting in the observed change in the tick rate? Absolutely not! Here is why: Whether a clock is at rest or in motion ... is controlled by the observer. You want the clock to be at rest? Move along with it. ... How can your change of motion affect the inner mechanism of a distant clock? It cannot and it does not.

4. Relativistic effects are apparent:

Aharoni [1985, 21]:

The moving rod appears shorter. The moving clock appears to go slow.

Cullwick [1959, 65, 68]:

[A] rod which is at rest in S' ... appears to the observer O to be contracted ... Similarly, a rod at rest in S will appear in S' to be contracted....

Jackson [1975, 520]:

The time as seen in the rest system is dilated.

Joos [1958, 243-244]:

The interval appears to the moving observer to be lengthened. A body which appears to be spherical to an observer at rest will appear to a moving observer to be an oblate spheroid.

McCrea [1954, 15-16]:

The apparent length is reduced. Time intervals appear to be lengthened; clocks appear to go slow.

Nunn [1923, 43-44]:

A moving rod would appear to be shortened. An interval is always less than measured by the other observer.

Whitrow [1980, 255]:

Instead of assuming that there are real, i.e. structural, changes in length and duration owing to motion, Einstein's theory involves only apparent changes, and these are independent of the microscopic constitution and hidden mechanisms controlling the structure of matter. [Unlike]... real changes, these apparent phenomena are reciprocal.

5. Relativistic effects are the result of the relativity of simultaneity:

Bohm [1965, 59]:

When measuring lengths and intervals, observers are not referring to the same events.

French [1968, 97],
Rosser [1967, 37],
Stephenson & Kilmister [1987, 38-39]:

Measurements of lengths involve simultaneity and yield different numerical values.

6. Relativistic effects are determined by measurements:

Schwartz [1972, 113]:

Each observer determines distances to be foreshortened.

7. Relativistic effects are comparable to perspective effects: Rindler [1991, 25-29]:

Moving lengths are reduced, a kind of perspective effect. But of course nothing has happened to the rod itself. Nevertheless, contraction is no illusion, it is real. Moving clocks go slow, a 'velocity-perspective' effect. Nothing at all happens to the clock itself. Like contraction, this effect is real.

8. Relativistic effects are mathematical:

Eddington [1924, 16-18]:

The connection between lengths and intervals are problems of pure mathematics. A travelling clock gives a low reading.

Minkowski [1908, 81]:

[The] contraction is not to be looked upon as a consequence of resistances in the ether, or anything of that kind, but simply as a gift from above, - as an accompanying circumstance of the circumstance of motion.

Rogers [1960, 496]:

Thus we have devised a new geometry, with our clocks and scales conspiring, by their changes, to present us with a universally constant speed of light.

2.2. References and reading list:

2.2.1. Expositions of and topics associated with special relativity

Aharoni, J., The Special Theory of Relativity, (1965), Dover, 1985.

Angel, R.B., Relativity: The Theory and its Philosophy, Oxford: Pergamon, 1980. (Highly recommended.)

Arzelies, H., Relativistic Kinematics, Pergamon, Oxford, 1966.

Bergmann, P. G., Introduction to the Theory of Relativity, (1942), Dover, 1976.

Bohm, D., The Special Theory of Relativity, W.A. Benjamin, New York, 1965.

Cullwick, E.G., Electromagnetism and Relativity, 2nd ed., Longmans, London, 1959.

Durrell, C.V., Readable Relativity, Bell, London, 1931. (By a leading British mathematician; standard text for older British mathematics teachers.)

Eddington, A.S. The Mathematical Theory of Relativity, 2nd ed., CUP 1924.

Eddington, A. S., The Nature of the Physical World , 1928, CUP / MacMillan (NY).

Einstein, A., "On the Relativity Principle and the Conclusions Drawn from it", (1907), Collected Papers, Princeton U.P., 1989, Vol.2 (Ppb), 252-311.

id., "Ether and the Theory of Relativity" (1920), in Sidelights on Relativity, Dover, 1983, 3-24.

id., The Meaning of Relativity, (1921), Chapman & Hall, London, 1967.

id. Relativity: The Special and the General Theory, 15th Ed. (Methuen 1960) Routledge, London, 1993.

French, A.P., Special Relativity, Chapman & Hall, London, 1968.

Goldstein, H., Classical Mechanics, 2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading: Mass., 1980.

Gray, J., Ideas of space, OUP, 1979.

Jackson J.D., Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed., John Wiley, New York, 1975.

Joos, G., Theoretical Physics, (1934), 3rd ed., Blackie, London, 1958.

(Klein, see 2)

Krane, K.S., Modern Physics, J. Wiley, New York, 1983.

Liebeck, H., Algebra for Scientists and Engineers. London: Wiley, 1969. (Relativistic 'proofs' by pure mathematics approach, by distinguished British mathematician.)

McCrea, W.H., Relativity Physics, 4th ed., Methuen, London, 1954.

Matveyev, A., Principles of Electrodynamics, Reinhold, New York, 1966.

Mermin, N.D., Space and Time in Special Relativity, Waveland Press, Prospect Heights: Ill., 1968.

Miller, A.I., Albert Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity, Addison-Wesley, Reading: Mass., 1981.

Minkowski, H., Gesammelte Abhandlungen, ed. D. Hilbert, 1911; 1967 reprint: NY: Chelsea.

Minkowski, H., "Space and Time" (1908), in H.A. Lorentz et al., The Principle of Relativity, Dover, 1952,75-91.

Møller, C., The Theory of Relativity, 2nd ed., OUP 1972.

Nunn, T.P., Relativity and Gravitation, University of London Press, 1923.

Oppenheimer, J.R., Lectures on Electrodynamics, Gordon & Breach, New York, 1970.

Pauli, W., Theory of Relativity (1921), Dover 1981.

Rindler, W., Introduction to Special Relativity, 2nd ed., Clarendon, Oxford, 1991.

Rogers, E.M., Physics for the Inquiring Mind, Princeton U. P. 1960.

Rosser, W.G.V., Introductory Relativity, Butterworths, London, 1967.

Russell, B., ABC of Relativity, Fourth revised Edition, Unwin Hyman, London, 1985.

Schwartz, M., Principles of Electrodynamics, McGraw Hill, New York, 1972.

Schwinger, J., Einstein's Legacy, Scientific American Library, New York, 1986.

Shadowitz, Albert, Special Relativity (W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1968), Dover 1988. (4D).

Silberstein, L., The Theory of Relativity, MacMillan, London, 1914.

Stephenson, G., & Kilmister, C.W., Special Relativity for Physicists (1958), Dover, 1987.

Taylor, E.F., & Wheeler, J.A., Spacetime Physics: Introduction to Special Relativity, 2nd ed., W.H. Freeman, New York, 1992.

Tolman, R.C., Relativity Thermodynamics and Cosmology (1934), Dover, 1987.

Whitrow, G.J., The Natural Philosophy of Time, 2nd Ed. OUP 1980.(Compulsory reading for critics writing on 'time'.)

2.2.2. The road to perdition: the philosophical and mathematical background

(What to include or leave out is a headache; the list is under construction. Comprehensive contemporary bibliographies are found in German texts such as Janisch, Pulte or Schiemann here listed; I omit authors, such as Mach, discussed by Bunge.)
Albert, A.A., Introduction to Algebraic Theories. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1942.

Anton, H., Calculus with analytic geometry. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1980. (One typical example of the large standard literature on basic mathematical concepts for engineers.)

Barzun, J., The House of Intellect. London: Secker & Warburg, 1959. (On the fêting of Einstein's genius.)

Berberian, S.K., Linear Algebra. Oxford Science Publications, 1992.

Bôcher, M., Introduction to Higher Algebra. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1907.

Cahan, D., (ed.) Hermann von Helmholtz and the Foundations of Nineteenth-Century Science. Berkeley etc.: 1994.

Cohen, I.B., Revolution in Science. Cambridge etc.: 1985.

Cooley, H.R., et al., Introduction to Mathematics: A Survey Emphasizing Mathematical Ideas and their Relations to other Fields of Knowledge. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1937.

Dickson, L.E., Linear Algebras. New York: Hafner Publishing Co., 1914.

Erdmann, B., Die Axiome der Geometrie. Eine philosophische Untersuchung der Riemann-Helmholtz'schen Raumtheorie. Leipzig: 1877.

Freudenthal, H., Mathematics as an Educational Task. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1973.

id., Revisiting mathematics education. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1991.

Gray, Jeremy & Moore, Gregory H. (dispute about the relevance of logicism & formalism), Historia Mathematica 23 no 4 (Nov. 1996) and 24 no 2 (May 1997).

Jacobi, C.G.J., ed. Pulte, H., Vorlesungen ueber analytische Mechanik. Wiesbaden: 1996.

Jammer, M., Concepts of Space. Cambr.,Mass: Harvard University Press, 1954.

Janisch, P. (Editor of the German journal Philosophia Naturalis), "Voluntarismus, Operationalismus, Konstruktivismus. Zur pragmatischen Begruendung der Naturwissenschaften." in Stachoviak, H. (ed.), Pragmatik: Handbuch des pragmatischen Denkens (5 vols). Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1997, vol. 2, 232-256.

Hill, Ch., Intellectual Origins of the English Revolution. Oxford University Press, 1965.

Kattsoff, L.O., A Philosophy of Mathematics. Ames: The Iowa State College Press, 1948.

Kirchhoff, G., Ueber das Ziel der Naturwissenschaften. Heidelberg: 1865.

- , Mechanik. 2nd. ed. Leipzig: Teubner, 1877.

Klein, F., Vorlesungen über die Entwicklung der Mathematic im 19. Jahrhundert.
I. Teil (pure mathematics), 1926, Berlin: Springer.
II. Teil (mathematical physics), 1927, id. (including 4D SR)

-, Elementary mathematics from an advanced standpoint.
Pt.1: Arithmetic, Algebra, Analysis. 3rd ed., 1924. NY Dover (undated).
Pt.2: Geometry. 3rd ed. 1939, London: MacMillan.

Koenigsberger, L., Hermann von Helmholtz' Untersuchungen ueber die Grundlagen der Mathematik und Mechanik. Heidelberg: 1895.

Kreider, D. L., et. al., An Introduction to Linear Analysis. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1966.

Lakatos, I., Philosophical Papers. 2 vols. Cambridge: 1978.

MacFarlane Smith, I., Spatial Ability: Its Educational and Social Significance. London University Press: 1964. (On the the danger to the nurture of skills of non-verbal reflection by the rise to dominance of the "Western culture of articulacy".)

Maxwell, J.C., Matter and Motion. London: 1876 (Dover, 1991).

Price, M., Mathematics for the Multitude? London: The Mathematical Association, 1994. (See Ch.3 for literature on the history of operationalist mathematics.)

Pulte, H., 'Conceptions of applied mathematics in Germany in the first half of the 19th century' (1996). Available from author: Institut fuer Philosophie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Postfach 102148, D-44780 Bochum 1, Germany. (Comprehensive bibliography.)

Pyenson, L., The Young Einstein. Bristol: A. Hilger, 1985.

Riemann, B., Ueber die Hypothesen, welche der Geometrie zugrunde liegen. (1867). Darmstadt: 1959.

Roe, J., Elementary Geometry. OUP: 1993.

Russell, B., The Principles of Mathematics. London: Routledge, 1992.

-, An Essay on the Foundations of Geometry. London: Routledge, 1996.

Schiemann, G., Wahrheits-Gewissheitsverlust: Hermann von Helmholtz' Mechanismus im Anbruch der Moderne. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1997.

Tall, D. (Ed.), Advanced Mathematics. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1991. (Concedes the importance of visualization.)

Torretti, R., Philosophy of Geometry from Riemann to Poincaré. Dordrecht: Reidel, 1978.

van der Waerden, B.L., A History of Algebra. Berlin: Springer, 1985.

-, Gruppen von Linearen Transformationen. (Springer, 1935), Chelsea reprint 1948.

Watson, W.H., Understanding Physics Today. Cambridge University Press: 1963.

Whitehead, A.N., A Treatise on Universal Algebra. (1898). New York: Hafner,1960.

-, An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Natural Knowledge. C.U.P.: 1919.

-, The Concept of Nature. C.U.P.: 1920.

Whitrow, G.J., The Natural Philosophy of Time. 2nd Ed. OUP 1980.

Young, J.W., Lectures on Fundamental Concepts of Algebra and Geometry. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1911.

In memoriam:

Gottlieb Heinz Wolowicz (alias Henry G. Walton) 1922 - 1985,
and his parents,
Mendel Wolowicz * Lodz 1875, + Frankfurt/M. 1939 as a victim of police torture,
Amalie neé Triwaks * Berlin 1885, 'verreist', last heard of in Theresienstadt 1943.

Unfortunately, the dedication must be qualified. For the fate of the European citizens classified under Nazi law as "Jews" is being used as a cloak for gross Israeli human rights violations. Let the playwright Tony Kushner speak for Jewish citizens of all countries, not only America:

"I am an American and a Jew, and as such I believe I have a direct responsibility for the behaviour of Americans and Jews. I deplore suicide bombings and the enemies of the peace process in the Palestinian territories and in the Arab and Muslim world. I deplore the brutal and illegal tactics of the Israeli Defence Forces in the occupied territories. I deplore the occupation, the forced evacuations, the settlements, the refugee camps, the whole shameful history of the dreadful suffering of the Palestinian people; Jews, of all people, with our history of suffering, should refuse to treat our fellow human beings like that." (London Times, Viewpoint Interview, 7 May 2002)
For links to Jewish protests against Israel's zionist ideology go to Jews against Zionism

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Responsible for content: G. Walton, Winchester, U.K.

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